NCGS Chapter 150B – Administrative Procedures Act
Sec. 150B-1. Policy and scope.
(a) Purpose. – This Chapter establishes a uniform system of administrative rule making and adjudicatory procedures for agencies. The procedures ensure that the functions of rule making, investigation, advocacy, and adjudication are not all performed by the same person in the administrative process.
(b) Rights. – This Chapter confers procedural rights.
Sec. 150B-2. Definitions.
As used in this Chapter,
(1) “Administrative law judge” means a person appointed under G.S. 7A‑752, 7A‑753, or 7A‑757.
(1a) “Agency” means an agency or an officer in the executive branch of the government of this State and includes the Council of State, the Governor’s Office, a board, a commission, a department, a division, a council, and any other unit of government in the executive branch. A local unit of government is not an agency.
(1b) “Adopt” means to take final action to create, amend, or repeal a rule.
(1c) “Codifier of Rules” means the Chief Administrative Law Judge of the Office of Administrative Hearings or a designated representative of the Chief Administrative Law Judge.
(1d) “Commission” means the Rules Review Commission.
(2) “Contested case” means an administrative proceeding pursuant to this Chapter to resolve a dispute between an agency and another person that involves the person’s rights, duties, or privileges, including licensing or the levy of a monetary penalty. “Contested case” does not include rulemaking, declaratory rulings, or the award or denial of a scholarship, a grant, or a loan.
(2b) “Hearing officer” means a person or group of persons designated by an agency that is subject to Article 3A of this Chapter to preside in a contested case hearing conducted under that Article.
(3) “License” means any certificate, permit or other evidence, by whatever name called, of a right or privilege to engage in any activity, except licenses issued under Chapter 20 and Subchapter I of Chapter 105 of the General Statutes and occupational licenses.
(4) “Licensing” means any administrative action issuing, failing to issue, suspending, or revoking a license or occupational license. “Licensing” does not include controversies over whether an examination was fair or whether the applicant passed the examination.
(4a) “Occupational license” means any certificate, permit, or other evidence, by whatever name called, of a right or privilege to engage in a profession, occupation, or field of endeavor that is issued by an occupational licensing agency.
(4b) “Occupational licensing agency” means any board, commission, committee or other agency of the State of North Carolina which is established for the primary purpose of regulating the entry of persons into, and/or the conduct of persons within a particular profession, occupation or field of endeavor, and which is authorized to issue and revoke licenses. “Occupational licensing agency” does not include State agencies or departments which may as only a part of their regular function issue permits or licenses.
(5) “Party” means any person or agency named or admitted as a party or properly seeking as of right to be admitted as a party and includes the agency as appropriate.
(6) “Person aggrieved” means any person or group of persons of common interest directly or indirectly affected substantially in his or its person, property, or employment by an administrative decision.
(7) “Person” means any natural person, partnership, corporation, body politic and any unincorporated association, organization, or society which may sue or be sued under a common name.
(7a) “Policy” means any nonbinding interpretive statement within the delegated authority of an agency that merely defines, interprets, or explains the meaning of a statute or rule. The term includes any document issued by an agency which is intended and used purely to assist a person to comply with the law, such as a guidance document.
(8) “Residence” means domicile or principal place of business.
(8a) “Rule” means any agency regulation, standard, or statement of general applicability that implements or interprets an enactment of the General Assembly or Congress or a regulation adopted by a federal agency or that describes the procedure or practice requirements of an agency. The term includes the establishment of a fee and the amendment or repeal of a prior rule. The term does not include the following:
a. Statements concerning only the internal management of an agency or group of agencies within the same principal office or department enumerated in G.S. 143A‑11 or 143B‑6, including policies and procedures manuals, if the statement does not directly or substantially affect the procedural or substantive rights or duties of a person not employed by the agency or group of agencies.
b. Budgets and budget policies and procedures issued by the Director of the Budget, by the head of a department, as defined by G.S. 143A‑2 or G.S. 143B‑3, by an occupational licensing board, as defined by G.S. 93B‑1, or by the State Board of Elections.
c. Nonbinding interpretive statements within the delegated authority of an agency that merely define, interpret, or explain the meaning of a statute or rule.
d. A form, the contents or substantive requirements of which are prescribed by rule or statute.
e. Statements of agency policy made in the context of another proceeding, including:
1. Declaratory rulings under G.S. 150B‑4.
2. Orders of establishing or fixing rates or tariffs.
f. Requirements, communicated to the public by the use of signs or symbols, concerning the use of public roads, bridges, ferries, buildings, or facilities.
g. Statements that set forth criteria or guidelines to be used by the staff of an agency in performing audits, investigations, or inspections; in settling financial disputes or negotiating financial arrangements; or in the defense, prosecution, or settlement of cases.
h. Scientific, architectural, or engineering standards, forms, or procedures, including design criteria and construction standards used to construct or maintain highways, bridges, or ferries.
i. Job classification standards, job qualifications, and salaries established for positions under the jurisdiction of the State Human Resources Commission.
j. Establishment of the interest rate that applies to tax assessments under G.S. 105‑241.21 and the variable component of the excise tax on motor fuel under G.S. 105‑449.80.
k. The State Medical Facilities Plan, if the Plan has been prepared with public notice and hearing as provided in G.S. 131E-176(25), reviewed by the Commission for compliance with G.S. 131E-176(25), and approved by the Governor.
(8c) “Substantial evidence” means relevant evidence a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to support a conclusion.
Sec. 150B-3. Special provisions on licensing.
(a) When an applicant or a licensee makes a timely and sufficient application for issuance or renewal of a license or occupational license, including the payment of any required license fee, the existing license or occupational license does not expire until a decision on the application is finally made by the agency, and if the application is denied or the terms of the new license or occupational license are limited, until the last day for applying for judicial review of the agency order. This subsection does not affect agency action summarily suspending a license or occupational license under subsections (b) and (c) of this section.
(b) Before the commencement of proceedings for the suspension, revocation, annulment, withdrawal, recall, cancellation, or amendment of any license other than an occupational license, the agency shall give notice to the licensee, pursuant to the provisions of G.S. 150B‑23. Before the commencement of such proceedings involving an occupational license, the agency shall give notice pursuant to the provisions of G.S. 150B‑38. In either case, the licensee shall be given an opportunity to show compliance with all lawful requirements for retention of the license or occupational license.
(c) If the agency finds that the public health, safety, or welfare requires emergency action and incorporates this finding in its order, summary suspension of a license or occupational license may be ordered effective on the date specified in the order or on service of the certified copy of the order at the last known address of the licensee, whichever is later, and effective during the proceedings. The proceedings shall be promptly commenced and determined.
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as amending or repealing any special statutes, in effect prior to February 1, 1976, which provide for the summary suspension of a license.
(d) This section does not apply to the following:
(1) Revocations of occupational licenses based solely on a court order of child support delinquency or a Department of Health and Human Services determination of child support delinquency issued pursuant to G.S. 110‑142, 110‑142.1, or 110‑142.2.
(2) Refusal to renew an occupational license pursuant to G.S. 87‑10.1, 87‑22.2, 87‑44.2, or 89C‑18.1, based solely on a Department of Revenue determination that the licensee owes a delinquent income tax debt.
150B-4. Declaratory rulings.
(a) On request of a person aggrieved, an agency shall issue a declaratory ruling as to the validity of a rule or as to the applicability to a given state of facts of a statute administered by the agency or of a rule or order of the agency. Upon request, an agency shall also issue a declaratory ruling to resolve a conflict or inconsistency within the agency regarding an interpretation of the law or a rule adopted by the agency. The agency shall prescribe in its rules the procedure for requesting a declaratory ruling and the circumstances in which rulings shall or shall not be issued. A declaratory ruling is binding on the agency and the person requesting it unless it is altered or set aside by the court. An agency may not retroactively change a declaratory ruling, but nothing in this section prevents an agency from prospectively changing a declaratory ruling.
(a1) An agency shall respond to a request for a declaratory ruling as follows:
(1) Within 30 days of receipt of the request for a declaratory ruling, the agency shall make a written decision to grant or deny the request. If the agency fails to make a written decision to grant or deny the request within 30 days, the failure shall be deemed a decision to deny the request.
(2) If the agency denies the request, the decision is immediately subject to judicial review in accordance with Article 4 of this Chapter.
(3) If the agency grants the request, the agency shall issue a written ruling on the merits within 45 days of the decision to grant the request. A declaratory ruling is subject to judicial review in accordance with Article 4 of this Chapter.
(4) If the agency fails to issue a declaratory ruling within 45 days, the failure shall be deemed a denial on the merits, and the person aggrieved may seek judicial review pursuant to Article 4 of this Chapter. Upon review of an agency’s failure to issue a declaratory ruling, the court shall not consider any basis for the denial that was not presented in writing to the person aggrieved.
Sec. 150B-18. Scope and effect.
This Article applies to an agency’s exercise of its authority to adopt a rule. A rule is not valid unless it is adopted in substantial compliance with this Article. An agency shall not seek to implement or enforce against any person a policy, guideline, or other nonbinding interpretive statement that meets the definition of a rule contained in G.S. 150B‑2(8a) if the policy, guideline, or other interpretive statement has not been adopted as a rule in accordance with this Article.
Sec. 150B-19. Restrictions on what can be adopted as a rule.
An agency may not adopt a rule that does one or more of the following:
(1) Implements or interprets a law unless that law or another law specifically authorizes the agency to do so.
(2) Enlarges the scope of a profession, occupation, or field of endeavor for which an occupational license is required.
(3) Imposes criminal liability or a civil penalty for an act or omission, including the violation of a rule, unless a law specifically authorizes the agency to do so or a law declares that violation of the rule is a criminal offense or is grounds for a civil penalty.
(4) Repeats the content of a law, a rule, or a federal regulation. A brief statement that informs the public of a requirement imposed by law does not violate this subdivision and satisfies the “reasonably necessary” standard of review set in G.S. 150B‑21.9(a)(3).
(5) Establishes a fee or other charge for providing a service in fulfillment of a duty unless a law specifically authorizes the agency to do so or the fee or other charge is for one of the following:
a. A service to a State, federal, or local governmental unit.
b. A copy of part or all of a State publication or other document, the cost of mailing a document, or both.
c. A transcript of a public hearing.
d. A conference, workshop, or course.
e. Data processing services.
(6) Allows the agency to waive or modify a requirement set in a rule unless a rule establishes specific guidelines the agency must follow in determining whether to waive or modify the requirement.
Sec. 150B‑19.1. Requirements for agencies in the rule-making process.
(a) In developing and drafting rules for adoption in accordance with this Article, agencies shall adhere to the following principles:
(1) An agency may adopt only rules that are expressly authorized by federal or State law and that are necessary to serve the public interest.
(2) An agency shall seek to reduce the burden upon those persons or entities who must comply with the rule.
(3) Rules shall be written in a clear and unambiguous manner and must be reasonably necessary to implement or interpret federal or State law.
(4) An agency shall consider the cumulative effect of all rules adopted by the agency related to the specific purpose for which the rule is proposed. The agency shall not adopt a rule that is unnecessary or redundant.
(5) When appropriate, rules shall be based on sound, reasonably available scientific, technical, economic, and other relevant information. Agencies shall include a reference to this information in the notice of text required by G.S. 150B‑21.2(c).
(6) Rules shall be designed to achieve the regulatory objective in a cost‑effective and timely manner.
(b) Each agency subject to this Article shall conduct an annual review of its rules to identify existing rules that are unnecessary, unduly burdensome, or inconsistent with the principles set forth in subsection (a) of this section. The agency shall repeal any rule identified by this review.
(c) Each agency subject to this Article shall post on its Web site, no later than the publication date of the notice of text in the North Carolina Register, all of the following:
(1) The text of a proposed rule.
(2) An explanation of the proposed rule and the reason for the proposed rule.
(3) The federal certification required by subsection (g) of this section.
(4) Instructions on how and where to submit oral or written comments on the proposed rule, including a description of the procedure by which a person can object to a proposed rule and subject the proposed rule to legislative review.
(5) Any fiscal note that has been prepared for the proposed rule.
If any agency proposes any change to a rule or fiscal note prior to the date it proposes to adopt a rule, the agency shall publish the proposed change on its Web site as soon as practicable after the change is drafted. If an agency’s staff proposes any such change to be presented to the rule-making agency, the staff shall publish the proposed change on the agency’s Web site as soon as practicable after the change is drafted.
(d) Each agency shall determine whether its policies and programs overlap with the policies and programs of another agency. In the event two or more agencies’ policies and programs overlap, the agencies shall coordinate the rules adopted by each agency to avoid unnecessary, unduly burdensome, or inconsistent rules.
(e) Each agency shall quantify the costs and benefits to all parties of a proposed rule to the greatest extent possible. Prior to submission of a proposed rule for publication in accordance with G.S. 150B‑21.2, the agency shall review the details of any fiscal note prepared in connection with the proposed rule and approve the fiscal note before submission.
(f) If the agency determines that a proposed rule will have a substantial economic impact as defined in G.S. 150B‑21.4(b1), the agency shall consider at least two alternatives to the proposed rule. The alternatives may have been identified by the agency or by members of the public.
(g) Whenever an agency proposes a rule that is purported to implement a federal law, or required by or necessary for compliance with federal law, or on which the receipt of federal funds is conditioned, the agency shall:
(1) Prepare a certification identifying the federal law requiring adoption of the proposed rule. The certification shall contain a statement setting forth the reasons why the proposed rule is required by federal law. If all or part of the proposed rule is not required by federal law or exceeds the requirements of federal law, then the certification shall state the reasons for that opinion.
(2) Post the certification on the agency Web site in accordance with subsection (c) of this section.
(3) Maintain a copy of the federal law and provide to the Office of State Budget and Management the citation to the federal law requiring or pertaining to the proposed rule.
(h) Before an agency that is within the Governor’s cabinet submits the proposed text of a permanent rule for publication in the North Carolina Register, the agency must submit the text of the proposed rule change and an analysis of the proposed rule change to the Office of State Budget and Management and obtain a certification from the Office that the agency adhered to the principles set forth in this section. Before an agency that is within the departments of the Council of State, other than the Governor, submits the proposed text of a permanent rule change for publication in the North Carolina Register, the agency must submit the test of the proposed rule change and an analysis of the proposed rule change to the Commission and obtain a certification from the Commission, or the Commission’s designee, as described in G.S. 150B-21.1(b), that the agency adhered to the principles set forth in this section. The Office of State Budget and Management or the Commission, respectively, must respond to an agency’s request for certification within 20 business days of receipt of the request.
Sec. 150B-20. Petitioning an agency to adopt a rule.
(a) Petition. – A person may petition an agency to adopt a rule by submitting to the agency a written rule‑making petition requesting the adoption. A person may submit written comments with a rule‑making petition. If a rule‑making petition requests the agency to create or amend a rule, the person must submit the proposed text of the requested rule change and a statement of the effect of the requested rule change. Each agency must establish by rule the procedure for submitting a rule‑making petition to it and the procedure the agency follows in considering a rule‑making petition.
(b) Time. – An agency must grant or deny a rule‑making petition submitted to it within 30 days after the date the rule‑making petition is submitted, unless the agency is a board or commission. If the agency is a board or commission, it must grant or deny a rule‑making petition within 120 days after the date the rule‑making petition is submitted.
(c) Action. – If an agency denies a rule‑making petition, it must send the person who submitted the petition a written statement of the reasons for denying the petition. If an agency grants a rule‑making petition, it must inform the person who submitted the rule‑making petition of its decision and must initiate rule‑making proceedings. When an agency grants a rule‑making petition, the notice of rule‑making proceedings it publishes in the North Carolina Register may state that the agency is initiating rule‑making proceedings as the result of a rule‑making petition and state the name of the person who submitted the rule‑making petition. If the rule‑making petition requested the creation or amendment of a rule, the notice of text the agency publishes after the notice of rule‑making proceedings may set out the text of the requested rule change submitted with the rule‑making petition and state whether the agency endorses the proposed text.
(d) Review. – Denial of a rule‑making petition is a final agency decision and is subject to judicial review under Article 4 of this Chapter. Failure of an agency to grant or deny a rule‑making petition within the time limits set in subsection (b) is a denial of the rule‑making petition.
Sec. 150B-21. Agency must designate rule-making coordinator; duties of coordinator.
(a) Each agency must designate one or more rule‑making coordinators to oversee the agency’s rule‑making functions. The coordinator shall serve as the liaison between the agency, other agencies, units of local government, and the public in the rule‑making process. The coordinator shall report directly to the agency head.
(b) The rule‑making coordinator shall be responsible for the following:
(1) Preparing notices of public hearings.
(2) Coordinating access to the agency’s rules.
(3) Screening all proposed rule actions prior to publication in the North Carolina Register to assure that an accurate fiscal note has been completed as required by G.S. 150B-21.4(b).
(4) Consulting with the North Carolina Association of County Commissioners and the North Carolina League of Municipalities to determine which local governments would be affected by any proposed rule action.
(5) Providing the North Carolina Association of County Commissioners and the North Carolina League of Municipalities with copies of all fiscal notes required by G.S. 150B-21.4(b), prior to publication in the North Carolina Register of the proposed text of a permanent rule change.
(6) Coordinating the submission of proposed rules to the Governor as provided by G.S. 150B-21.26.
(c) At the earliest point in the rule‑making process and in consultation with the North Carolina Association of County Commissioners, the North Carolina League of Municipalities, and with samples of county managers or city managers, as appropriate, the rule‑making coordinator shall lead the agency’s efforts in the development and drafting of any rules or rule changes that could:
(1) Require any unit of local government, including a county, city, school administrative unit, or other local entity funded by or through a unit of local government to carry out additional or modified responsibilities;
(2) Increase the cost of providing or delivering a public service funded in whole or in part by any unit of local government; or
(3) Otherwise affect the expenditures or revenues of a unit of local government.
(d) The rule‑making coordinator shall send to the Office of State Budget and Management for compilation a copy of each final fiscal note prepared pursuant to G.S. 150B-21.4(b).
(e) The rule‑making coordinator shall compile a schedule of the administrative rules and amendments expected to be proposed during the next fiscal year. The coordinator shall provide a copy of the schedule to Office of State Budget and Management in a manner proposed by that Office.
(f) Whenever an agency proposes a rule that is purported to implement a federal law, or required by or necessary for compliance with federal law, or on which the receipt of federal funds is conditioned, the rule‑making coordinator shall:
(1) Attach to the proposed rule a certificate prepared by the rule‑making coordinator identifying the federal law requiring adoption of the proposed rule. The certification shall contain a statement setting forth the reasons for why the proposed rule is required by law. If all or part of the proposed rule is not required by federal law or exceeds the requirements of federal law, then the certification shall state the reasons for that opinion. No comment or opinion shall be included in the certification with regard to the merits of the proposed rule; and
(2) The rule‑making coordinator shall maintain a copy of the federal law and shall provide to the Office of State Budget and Management for compilation the citation to the federal law requiring or pertaining to the proposed rule.
Sec. 150B-21.2. Procedure for adopting a permanent rule.
(a) Steps. – Before an agency adopts a permanent rule, the agency must comply with the requirements of G.S. 150B-19.1, and it must take the following actions:
(1) Publish a notice of text in the North Carolina Register.
(2) When required by G.S. 150B-21.4, prepare or obtain a fiscal note for the proposed rule.
(4) When required by subsection (e) of this section, hold a public hearing on the proposed rule after publication of the proposed text of the rule.
(5) Accept oral or written comments on the proposed rule as required by subsection (f) of this section.
(c) Notice of Text. – A notice of the proposed text of a rule must include all of the following:
(1) The text of the proposed rule, unless the rule is a readoption without substantive changes to the existing rule proposed in accordance with G.S. 150B-21.3A.
(2) A short explanation of the reason for the proposed rule.
(2a) A link to the agency’s Web site containing the information required by G.S. 150B-19.1(c).
(3) A citation to the law that gives the agency the authority to adopt the rule.
(4) The proposed effective date of the rule.
(5) The date, time, and place of any public hearing scheduled on the rule.
(6) Instructions on how a person may demand a public hearing on a proposed rule if the notice does not schedule a public hearing on the proposed rule and subsection (e) of this section requires the agency to hold a public hearing on the proposed rule when requested to do so.
(7) The period of time during which and the person to whom written comments may be submitted on the proposed rule.
(8) If a fiscal note has been prepared for the rule, a statement that a copy of the fiscal note can be obtained from the agency.
Sec. 150B‑21.4. Fiscal notes on rules.
(a) State Funds. – Before an agency publishes in the North Carolina Register the proposed text of a permanent rule change that would require the expenditure or distribution of funds subject to the State Budget Act, Chapter 143C of the General Statutes it must submit the text of the proposed rule change, an analysis of the proposed rule change, and a fiscal note on the proposed rule change to the Office of State Budget and Management and obtain certification from the Office that the funds that would be required by the proposed rule change are available. The fiscal note must state the amount of funds that would be expended or distributed as a result of the proposed rule change and explain how the amount was computed. The Office of State Budget and Management must certify a proposed rule change if funds are available to cover the expenditure or distribution required by the proposed rule change.
Sec. 150B-38. Scope; hearing required; notice; venue.
(a) The provisions of this Article shall apply to:
(1) Occupational licensing agencies.
(b) Prior to any agency action in a contested case, the agency shall give the parties in the case an opportunity for a hearing without undue delay and notice not less than 15 days before the hearing. Notice to the parties shall include:
(1) A statement of the date, hour, place, and nature of the hearing;
(2) A reference to the particular sections of the statutes and rules involved; and
(3) A short and plain statement of the facts alleged.
(c) Notice shall be given by one of the methods for service of process under G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 4(j) or Rule 4(j3). If given by registered or certified mail, by signature confirmation as provided by the United States Postal Service, or by designated delivery service authorized pursuant to 26 U.S.C. § 7502(f)(2) with delivery receipt, notice shall be deemed to have been given on the delivery date appearing on the return receipt, copy of proof of delivery provided by the United States Postal Service, or delivery receipt. If notice cannot be given by one of the methods for service of process under G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 4(j) or Rule 4(j3), then notice shall be given in the manner provided in G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 4(j1).
(d) A party who has been served with a notice of hearing may file a written response with the agency. If a written response is filed, a copy of the response must be mailed to all other parties not less than 10 days before the date set for the hearing.
(e) All hearings conducted under this Article shall be open to the public. A hearing conducted by the agency shall be held in the county where the agency maintains its principal office. A hearing conducted for the agency by an administrative law judge requested under G.S. 150B‑40 shall be held in a county in this State where any person whose property or rights are the subject matter of the hearing resides. If a different venue would promote the ends of justice or better serve the convenience of witnesses, the agency or the administrative law judge may designate another county. A person whose property or rights are the subject matter of the hearing waives his objection to venue if he proceeds in the hearing.
(f) Any person may petition to become a party by filing with the agency or hearing officer a motion to intervene in the manner provided by G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 24. In addition, any person interested in a contested case under this Article may intervene and participate to the extent deemed appropriate by the agency hearing officer.
(g) When contested cases involving a common question of law or fact or multiple proceedings involving the same or related parties are pending before an agency, the agency may order a joint hearing of any matters at issue in the cases, order the cases consolidated, or make other orders to reduce costs or delay in the proceedings.
(h) Every agency shall adopt rules governing the conduct of hearings that are consistent with the provisions of this Article.
Sec. 150B-39. Depositions; discovery; subpoenas.
(a) A deposition may be used in lieu of other evidence when taken in compliance with the Rules of Civil Procedure, G.S. 1A‑1. Parties in a contested case may engage in discovery pursuant to the provisions of the Rules of Civil Procedure, G.S. 1A‑1.
(b) Upon a request for an identifiable agency record involving a material fact in a contested case, the agency shall promptly provide the record to a party, unless the record relates solely to the agency’s internal procedures or is exempt from disclosure by law.
(c) In preparation for, or in the conduct of, a contested case subpoenas may be issued and served in accordance with G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 45. Upon a motion, the agency may quash a subpoena if, upon a hearing, the agency finds that the evidence, the production of which is required, does not relate to a matter in issue, the subpoena does not describe with sufficient particularity the evidence the production of which is required, or for any other reason sufficient in law the subpoena may be quashed. Witness fees shall be paid by the party requesting the subpoena to subpoenaed witnesses in accordance with G.S. 7A‑314. However, State officials or employees who are subpoenaed shall not be entitled to any witness fees, but they shall receive their normal salary and they shall not be required to take any annual leave for the witness days. Travel expenses of State officials or employees who are subpoenaed shall be reimbursed as provided in G.S. 138‑6.
Sec. 150B-40. Conduct of hearing; presiding officer; ex parte communication.
(a) Hearings shall be conducted in a fair and impartial manner. At the hearing, the agency and the parties shall be given an opportunity to present evidence on issues of fact, examine and cross‑ examine witnesses, including the author of a document prepared by, on behalf of or for the use of the agency and offered into evidence, submit rebuttal evidence, and present arguments on issues of law or policy.
If a party fails to appear in a contested case after he has been given proper notice, the agency may continue the hearing or proceed with the hearing and make its decision in the absence of the party.
(b) Except as provided under subsection (e) of this section, hearings under this Article shall be conducted by a majority of the agency. An agency shall designate one or more of its members to preside at the hearing. If a party files in good faith a timely and sufficient affidavit of the personal bias or other reason for disqualification of any member of the agency, the agency shall determine the matter as a part of the record in the case, and its determination shall be subject to judicial review at the conclusion of the proceeding. If a presiding officer is disqualified or it is impracticable for him to continue the hearing, another presiding officer shall be assigned to continue with the case, except that if assignment of a new presiding officer will cause substantial prejudice to any party, a new hearing shall be held or the case dismissed without prejudice.
(c) The presiding officer may:
(1) Administer oaths and affirmations;
(2) Sign and issue subpoenas in the name of the agency, requiring attendance and giving of testimony by witnesses and the production of books, papers, and other documentary evidence;
(3) Provide for the taking of testimony by deposition;
(4) Regulate the course of the hearings, set the time and place for continued hearings, and fix the time for filing of briefs and other documents;
(5) Direct the parties to appear and confer to consider simplification of the issues by consent of the parties; and
(6) Apply to any judge of the superior court resident in the district or presiding at a term of court in the county where a hearing is pending for an order to show cause why any person should not be held in contempt of the agency and its processes, and the court shall have the power to impose punishment as for contempt for acts which would constitute direct or indirect contempt if the acts occurred in an action pending in superior court.
(d) Unless required for disposition of an ex parte matter authorized by law, a member of an agency assigned to make a decision or to make findings of fact and conclusions of law in a contested case under this Article shall not communicate, directly or indirectly, in connection with any issue of fact or question of law, with any person or party or his representative, except on notice and opportunity for all parties to participate. This prohibition begins at the time of the notice of hearing. An agency member may communicate with other members of the agency and may have the aid and advice of the agency staff other than the staff which has been or is engaged in investigating or prosecuting functions in connection with the case under consideration or a factually‑related case. This section does not apply to an agency employee or party representative with professional training in accounting, actuarial science, economics or financial analysis insofar as the case involves financial practices or conditions.
(e) When a majority of an agency is unable or elects not to hear a contested case, the agency shall apply to the Director of the Office of Administrative Hearings for the designation of an administrative law judge to preside at the hearing of a contested case under this Article. Upon receipt of the application, the Director shall, without undue delay, assign an administrative law judge to hear the case.
The provisions of this Article, rather than the provisions of Article 3, shall govern a contested case in which the agency requests an administrative law judge from the Office of Administrative Hearings.
The administrative law judge assigned to hear a contested case under this Article shall sit in place of the agency and shall have the authority of the presiding officer in a contested case under this Article. The administrative law judge shall make a proposal for decision, which shall contain proposed findings of fact and proposed conclusions of law.
An administrative law judge shall stay any contested case under this Article on motion of an agency which is a party to the contested case, if the agency shows by supporting affidavits that it is engaged in other litigation or administrative proceedings, by whatever name called, with or before a federal agency, and this other litigation or administrative proceedings will determine the position, in whole or in part, of the agency in the contested case. At the conclusion of the other litigation or administrative proceedings, the contested case shall proceed and be determined as expeditiously as possible.
The agency may make its final decision only after the administrative law judge’s proposal for decision is served on the parties, and an opportunity is given to each party to file exceptions and proposed findings of fact and to present oral and written arguments to the agency.
Sec. 150B-41. Evidence; stipulations; official notice.
(a) In all contested cases, irrelevant, immaterial, and unduly repetitious evidence shall be excluded. Except as otherwise provided, the rules of evidence as applied in the trial division of the General Court of Justice shall be followed; but, when evidence is not reasonably available under such rules to show relevant facts, they may be shown by the most reliable and substantial evidence available. It shall not be necessary for a party or his attorney to object to evidence at the hearing in order to preserve the right to object to its consideration by the agency in reaching its decision, or by the court of judicial review.
(b) Evidence in a contested case, including records and documents shall be offered and made a part of the record. Other factual information or evidence shall not be considered in determination of the case, except as permitted under G.S. 150B‑30. Documentary evidence may be received in the form of a copy or excerpt or may be incorporated by reference, if the materials so incorporated are available for examination by the parties. Upon timely request, a party shall be given an opportunity to compare the copy with the original if available.
(c) The parties in a contested case under this Article by a stipulation in writing filed with the agency may agree upon any fact involved in the controversy, which stipulation shall be used as evidence at the hearing and be binding on the parties thereto. Parties should agree upon facts when practicable. Except as otherwise provided by law, disposition may be made of a contested case by stipulation, agreed settlement, consent order, waiver, default, or other method agreed upon by the parties.
(d) Official notice may be taken of all facts of which judicial notice may be taken and of other facts within the specialized knowledge of the agency. The noticed fact and its source shall be stated and made known to affected parties at the earliest practicable time, and any party shall on timely request be afforded an opportunity to dispute the noticed fact through submission of evidence and argument. An agency may use its experience, technical competence, and specialized knowledge in the evaluation of evidence presented to it.
Sec. 150B-42. Final agency decision; official record.
(a) After compliance with the provisions of G.S. 150B‑40(e), if applicable, and review of the official record, as defined in subsection (b) of this section, an agency shall make a written final decision or order in a contested case. The decision or order shall include findings of fact and conclusions of law. Findings of fact shall be based exclusively on the evidence and on matters officially noticed. Findings of fact, if set forth in statutory language, shall be accompanied by a concise and explicit statement of the underlying facts supporting them. A decision or order shall not be made except upon consideration of the record as a whole or such portion thereof as may be cited by any party to the proceeding and shall be supported by substantial evidence admissible under G.S. 150B‑41. A copy of the decision or order shall be served upon each party by one of the methods for service of process under G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 5(b). If service is by registered, certified, or first‑class mail, by signature confirmation as provided by the United States Postal Service, or by designated delivery service authorized pursuant to 26 U.S.C. § 7502(f)(2) with delivery receipt, the copy shall be addressed to the party at the latest address given by the party to the agency. Service by one of the additional methods provided in G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 5(b), is effective as provided therein and shall be accompanied by a certificate of service as provided in G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 5(b1). G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 6(e), applies if service is by first‑class mail. A copy shall be furnished to the party’s attorney of record.
(b) An agency shall prepare an official record of a hearing that shall include:
(1) Notices, pleadings, motions, and intermediate rulings;
(2) Questions and offers of proof, objections, and rulings thereon;
(3) Evidence presented;
(4) Matters officially noticed, except matters so obvious that a statement of them would serve no useful purpose;
(5) Proposed findings and exceptions; and
(6) Any decision, opinion, order, or report by the officer presiding at the hearing and by the agency.
(c) Proceedings at which oral evidence is presented shall be recorded, but need not be transcribed unless requested by a party. Each party shall bear the cost of the transcript or part thereof or copy of said transcript or part thereof which said party requests.
Sec. 150B-43. Right to judicial review.
Any party or person aggrieved by the final decision in a contested case, and who has exhausted all administrative remedies made available to the party or person aggrieved by statute or agency rule, is entitled to judicial review of the decision under this Article, unless adequate procedure for judicial review is provided by another statute, in which case the review shall be under such other statute. Nothing in this Chapter shall prevent any party or person aggrieved from invoking any judicial remedy available to the party or person aggrieved under the law to test the validity of any administrative action not made reviewable under this Article.
Sec. 150B-44. Right to judicial intervention when decision unreasonably delayed.
Unreasonable delay on the part of any agency or administrative law judge in taking any required action shall be justification for any person whose rights, duties, or privileges are adversely affected by such delay to seek a court order compelling action by the agency or administrative law judge. Failure of an administrative law judge subject to Article 3 of this Chapter or failure of an agency subject to Article 3A of this Chapter to make a final decision within 120 days of the close of the contested case hearing is justification for a person whose rights, duties, or privileges are adversely affected by the delay to seek a court order compelling action by the agency or by the administrative law judge. The Board of Trustees of the North Carolina State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees is a “board” for purposes of this section.
Sec. 150B-45. Procedure for seeking review; waiver
(a) Procedure. – To obtain judicial review of a final decision under this Article, the person seeking review must file a petition within 30 days after the person is served with a written copy of the decision. The petition must be filed as follows:
(1) Contested tax cases. – A petition for review of a final decision in a contested tax case arising under G.S. 105‑241.15 must be filed in the Superior Court of Wake County.
(2) Other final decisions. – A petition for review of any other final decision under this Article must be filed in the superior court of the county where the person aggrieved by the administrative decision resides, or in the case of a person residing outside the State, in the county where the contested case which resulted in the final decision was filed.
(b) Waiver. – A person who fails to file a petition within the required time waives the right to judicial review under this Article. For good cause shown, however, the superior court may accept an untimely petition.
Sec. 150B-46. Contents of petition; copies served on all parties; intervention.
The petition shall explicitly state what exceptions are taken to the decision or procedure and what relief the petitioner seeks. Within 10 days after the petition is filed with the court, the party seeking the review shall serve copies of the petition by personal service or by certified mail upon all who were parties of record to the administrative proceedings. Names and addresses of such parties shall be furnished to the petitioner by the agency upon request. Any party to the administrative proceeding is a party to the review proceedings unless the party withdraws by notifying the court of the withdrawal and serving the other parties with notice of the withdrawal. Other parties to the proceeding may file a response to the petition within 30 days of service. Parties, including agencies, may state exceptions to the decision or procedure and what relief is sought in the response.
Any person aggrieved may petition to become a party by filing a motion to intervene as provided in G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 24.
Sec. 150B-47. Records filed with clerk of superior court; contents of records; costs.
Within 30 days after receipt of the copy of the petition for review, or within such additional time as the court may allow, the Office of Administrative Hearings shall transmit to the reviewing court the original or a certified copy of the official record in the contested case under review. With the permission of the court, the record may be shortened by stipulation of all parties to the review proceedings. Any party unreasonably refusing to stipulate to limit the record may be taxed by the court for such additional costs as may be occasioned by the refusal. The court may require or permit subsequent corrections or additions to the record when deemed desirable.
Sec. 150B-48. Stay of decision.
At any time before or during the review proceeding, the person aggrieved may apply to the reviewing court for an order staying the operation of the administrative decision pending the outcome of the review. The court may grant or deny the stay in its discretion upon such terms as it deems proper and subject to the provisions of G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 65.
Sec. 150B-49. New evidence.
A party or person aggrieved who files a petition in the superior court may apply to the court to present additional evidence. If the court is satisfied that the evidence is material to the issues, is not merely cumulative, and could not reasonably have been presented at the administrative hearing, the court may remand the case so that additional evidence can be taken. If an administrative law judge did not make a final decision in the case, the court shall remand the case to the agency that conducted the administrative hearing under Article 3A of this Chapter. After hearing the evidence, the agency may affirm or modify its previous findings of fact and final decision. If an administrative law judge made a final decision in the case, the court shall remand the case to the administrative law judge. After hearing the evidence, the administrative law judge may affirm or modify his previous findings of fact and final decision. The additional evidence and any affirmation or modification of a final decision shall be made part of the official record.
Sec. 150B-50. Review by superior court without jury.
The review by a superior court of administrative decisions under this Chapter shall be conducted by the court without a jury.
Sec. 150B-51. Scope and standard of review.
(b) The court reviewing a final decision may affirm the decision or remand the case for further proceedings. It may also reverse or modify the decision if the substantial rights of the petitioners may have been prejudiced because the findings, inferences, conclusions, or decisions are:
(1) In violation of constitutional provisions;
(2) In excess of the statutory authority or jurisdiction of the agency or administrative law judge;
(3) Made upon unlawful procedure;
(4) Affected by other error of law;
(5) Unsupported by substantial evidence admissible under G.S. 150B-29(a), 150B‑30, or 150B‑31 in view of the entire record as submitted; or
(6) Arbitrary, capricious, or an abuse of discretion.
(c) In reviewing a final decision in a contested case, the court shall determine whether the petitioner is entitled to the relief sought in the petition based upon its review of the final decision and the official record. With regard to asserted errors pursuant to subdivisions (1) through (4) of subsection (b) of this section, the court shall conduct its review of the final decision using the de novo standard of review. With regard to asserted errors pursuant to subdivisions (5) and (6) of subsection (b) of this section, the court shall conduct its review of the final decision using the whole record standard of review.
(d) In reviewing a final decision allowing judgment on the pleadings or summary judgment, the court may enter any order allowed by G.S. 1A‑1, Rule 12(c) or Rule 56. If the order of the court does not fully adjudicate the case, the court shall remand the case to the administrative law judge for such further proceedings as are just.
Sec. 150B-52. Appeal; stay of court’s decision.
A party to a review proceeding in a superior court may appeal to the appellate division from the final judgment of the superior court as provided in G.S. 7A‑27. The scope of review to be applied by the appellate court under this section is the same as it is for other civil cases. In cases reviewed under G.S. 150B‑51(c), the court’s findings of fact shall be upheld if supported by substantial evidence. Pending the outcome of an appeal, an appealing party may apply to the court that issued the judgment under appeal for a stay of that judgment or a stay of the administrative decision that is the subject of the appeal, as appropriate.